Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms And The Concept of Nursing Support
Theory of unpleasant symptoms – TOUS – has been developing since the 1990s. TOUS is a theory in healthcare developed by healthcare workers and intended to be applied by them. According to this theory, multiple symptoms may occur simultaneously, interact with each other and be multiplicative. Several symptoms have been presented, including also psychological, physiological and cognitive aspects of a patient’s personality. Symptom models described in the TOUS are the nociceptive model of dyspnea, symptom interpretation model, model of chronic dyspnea and symptom management model. TOUS is the first model to describe multiple, mutually related symptoms. By studying this theory, it can be concluded that controlling a single symptom is beneficial for controlling other symptoms. TOUS views a set of occurring symptoms without isolating any of the symptoms, but allowing for each symptom to be monitored separately. The theory helps in planning nursing interventions and facilitates healthcare delivery in general. The purpose of this theory is to help healthcare workers understand the symptoms and the methods used for their management. TOUS has been developed through clinical research; it establishes a logical connection between the symptoms and extends theoretical knowledge by taking into account previous factors, experiences of single or multiple symptoms and their impact on performance.
(Mikšić Š, Bošnjaković M, Simić I, Stanić B, Stanković M, Stojkov Ž. Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms and Concept of Nursing Support. SEEMEDJ 2018; 2(2); 17-22)
KEYWORDS: theory, unpleasant symptoms, pain, dyspnea, healthcare