Pathophysiological and Diagnostic Aspects of Sarcopenia in Hemodialysis Patients
Chronic kidney disease and renal replacement therapy, particularly hemodialysis, contribute to the development of negative protein balance and muscle dysfunction in dialysis patients, from the development of protein-energy malnutrition to sarcopenia. Due to multifactorial etiology and complex pathophysiological patterns, sarcopenia has proven to be a significant predictor of cardiovascular events and is associated with a higher risk of overall mortality. Screening methods of chronic kidney patients and patients on hemodialysis who are at higher risk of developing sarcopenia, as well as diagnostic methods for this group of patients are not clearly defined, hence methods used for the general population of elderly patients, especially based on the revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2), are utilized in this subpopulation as well. Therefore, there is a need to define new biomarkers of sarcopenia such as the existing 24h urine excretion of creatinine, a product of estimated glomerular filtration of cystatin C and creatinine or myostatin and their use in routine work with dialysis patients to identify this condition among them and reduce morbidity and mortality.