Dual Nature of the Antiepileptic Drug Valproic Acid, with Possible Beneficial Effects in Alzheimer’s Disease
Valproic acid (VPA) is a fatty acid with strong anticonvulsant properties has different effects in different tissues with opposing mechanisms of action. Due to the anomalous effects on energy, fatty acid, and cholesterol metabolism it is a risk factor for the development of diabetes with its associated complications, atherosclerosis, and metabolic it has negative effects on the endocrine system and can have severe health consequences in the female population.VPA has s proinflammatory and proapoptotic effects in the liver and anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects in the central nervous system. It also causes abnormalities in lipid and cholesterol transport in the liver and the reproductive organs, while in neural stem cells it decreases cholesterol accumulation and helps in the differentiation of neural stem cells. In the CNS, however it has many beneficial effects in Alzeheimer`s disease (AD). In AD models VPA exerted antiapoptotic effects, expression of transcription factors that promote neurite growth. Most of the pathogenic pathways of its unwanted or beneficial molecular effects are not fully understood. We present and overview and comparison of differential properties of VPA in physiology of liver, adipose, ovary and neural cells.