Arterial Hypertension and Risk of Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 Infection

(Review article)

  • Nikolina Bukal Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Pulmonology, General Hospital ”Dr. Josip Benčević”, Slavonski Brod
  • Melanija Kolarić Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, General Hospital Varaždin
  • Ines Golubić Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, General Hospital “Dr. Tomislav Bardek”, Koprivnica
  • Josipa Josipović Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, University Hospital Centre Sisters of Mercy, Zagreb; School of Medicine, University of Zagreb
  • Vedran Premužić Department of Nephrology, Arterial Hypertension, Dialysis and Transplantation, University Hospital Centre Zagreb
  • Ana Jelaković Department of Nephrology, Arterial Hypertension, Dialysis and Transplantation, University Hospital Centre Zagreb
  • Sandra Karanović* School of Medicine, University of Zagreb; Department of Nephrology, Arterial Hypertension, Dialysis and Transplantation, University Hospital Centre Zagreb
  • Nikolina Bašić Jukić School of Medicine, University of Zagreb; Department of Nephrology, Arterial Hypertension, Dialysis and Transplantation, University Hospital Centre Zagreb
  • Bojan Jelaković School of Medicine, University of Zagreb; Department of Nephrology, Arterial Hypertension, Dialysis and Transplantation, University Hospital Centre Zagreb

Abstract

COVID-19 is currently a major global health concern. Among many unanswered questions related to COVID-19, some of the most debated ones are those concerning arterial hypertension. Arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for mortality worldwide and its importance has been emphasised even further in light of COVID-19. The most common antihypertensive drugs are ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers. SARS-CoV-2 utilises the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) for cell entry and therefore has a direct effect on the renin–angiotensin system (RAS). In terms of arterial hypertension and COVID-19, there are three main issues which have been the focus of extensive debates. First, is arterial hypertension a predisposing factor for COVID-19 infection? Second, does arterial hypertension affect the severity of COVID-19 infection and increase the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality? And finally, how important is the interaction of COVID-19 infection and the renin–angiotensin system for clinical outcomes? Is RAS blockade beneficial or harmful? The aim of this brief review was to provide substantiated answers to these questions.

Published
Apr 27, 2022
How to Cite
BUKAL, Nikolina et al. Arterial Hypertension and Risk of Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 Infection. Southeastern European Medical Journal, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 1, p. 74-82, apr. 2022. ISSN 2459-9484. Available at: <http://seemedj.mefos.unios.hr/index.php/seemedj/article/view/239>. Date accessed: 03 july 2022. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.26332/seemedj.v6i1.239.
Section
Articles