Hypertension in Association With Anxiety and Depression – A Narrative Review

(Review article)

  • Josipa Ivanušić-Pejić Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Centre Osijek, Croatia
  • Dunja Degmečić* Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Centre Osijek, Croatia; Faculty of Medicine, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia


Hypertension is recognized as a multifactorial disorder. Anxiety disorders, depressive disorder, psychosocial stress and certain individual psychological characteristics can influence the development and course of hypertension. Likewise, certain antidepressants can impact blood pressure. Association of anxiety disorders and depression with hypertension is bidirectional, so hypertensive patients are at risk of anxiety or depression. Monitoring the blood pressure of patients with anxiety disorders and depression, screening for anxiety and depression in patients with arterial hypertension and understanding pathophysiological mechanisms is important for future prevention and treatment strategies. This narrative review will briefly summarize current knowledge about the association of anxiety and depression with the risk of development of hypertension. Likewise, certain psychological factors and pathophysiological mechanisms in stress that are of importance for the association of hypertension with anxiety and depression are pointed out in this review, and effects of commonly used antidepressants are also considered.