Sleep Disorders in Cervical Dystonia, Parkinson’s Disease and Depression – What Is the Difference?
Aim: Sleep disorders are among the most common non-motor symptoms in patients with cervical dystonia (CD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and depression. The aim of the study was to investigate whether CD patients experienced sleep disturbance in comparison to healthy control and whether this sleep disturbance differed in frequency and extent from patients with PD or depression.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study we evaluated 122 patients (30 control, 30 CD, 32 PD, and 30 depressed). Demographic data were collected. All of them except for depressed groups were tested for depression and anxiety using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Sleep disorders were evaluated by the use of the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Statistical significance was defined at α=0.05.
Results: CD patients differed from control healthy group in PSQ score and some subscales. Depression group differed in most subscales of PSQI when compare to PD and CD group, while PD and CD groups differed only in duration subscale. Only one subscale of daily sleepiness in PD patients differs from other patients groups.
Conclusion: CD patients have more sleep disturbances when compare to healthy control. There are differences in the frequency and extent of sleep disturbances with less pronounced symptoms in CD and PD groups and the most pronounced symptoms in depressed patients. Symptoms of depression and anxiety correlate with sleep disturbances in PD and CD patients group. CD patients do not experience daily sleepiness problems.