Urinary Incontinence: Diagnostic Evaluation and First-line Treatment

  • Ivan Radoja Department of Urology, University Hospital Center Osijek, Osijek, Croatia, Faculty of Medicine, The Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
  • Dunja Degmečić* Faculty of Medicine, The Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Psychiatric Clinic, University Hospital Center Osijek


Urinary incontinence is defined as involuntary leakage of any amount of urine that negatively affects the individual's hygienic and social status. It is an important public health problem because it has a high prevalence and incidence. Due to various social prejudices, it is often neglected and unreported. It is also characterized by its chronic appearance and complications such as decreased quality of life, sexual dysfunction and symptoms of anxiety and depression. The financial burden for symptomatic, conservative and surgical treatment of urinary incontinence is high. Both women and men are reluctant to seek medical help, and they most often use coping strategies to deal with urinary incontinence symptoms, which include the use of incontinence aids such as adult diapers and pads.

We conducted a systematic review of high-quality randomized controlled studies and of other review articles to compare circumstances surrounding the diagnostic evaluation and first-line treatment of urinary incontinence in women and men according to International Continence Society guidelines. Because urinary incontinence can occur during any stage of life, diagnostic and therapeutic approach is different in women and men. Social stigmatization created due to urinary incontinence may harm a person’s self-confidence and cause many negativities at a social level.

Timely recognition of the type and severity of symptoms of urinary incontinence is necessary to reduce the occurrence of the aforementioned complications.

(Radoja I, Degmečić* D. Urinary Incontinence: Diagnostic Evaluation and First-Line Treatment. SEEMEDJ 2020; 4(1); 63-73)

Apr 24, 2020
How to Cite
RADOJA, Ivan; DEGMEČIĆ*, Dunja. Urinary Incontinence: Diagnostic Evaluation and First-line Treatment. Southeastern European Medical Journal, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 1, p. 64-74, apr. 2020. ISSN 2459-9484. Available at: <http://seemedj.mefos.unios.hr/index.php/seemedj/article/view/133>. Date accessed: 18 jan. 2021. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.26332/seemedj.v4i1.133.